What is the role of antioxidants in maintaining health?
It has been known for some time that antioxidants can help boost the body’s own defenses against a variety of diseases, by assisting the body’s own defenses against superoxides.Inside each cell, there are two proteins specifically designed to neutralize excess superoxides. These are formed in normal cell metabolism. One is catalase and the other is superoxide dismutase (SOD). Both have the job of breaking down superoxides, which are highly reactive oxygen molecules, such as O3, O5, O7, and hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, that have an affinity for grabbing on to fatty tissue in the body and destroying it.

In a healthy person, the body’s own production of SOD and catalase are sufficient to keep superoxides under control. But over time, and with prolonged stress to the body — by stress we mean environmental damage (excess sunlight, exposure to pollution or hazardous chemicals), certain emotional stresses, or just the plain fact of aging, which over time can cause transcription errors in the manufacture of DNA — the body can lose its ability to produce enough catalase or SOD to keep excess superoxides at bay. A diet rich in antioxidants can therefore help keep a healthy person healthy, but it cannot do much once cells stop producing catalase and SOD.
Pomegranate Juice is an excellent antioxidant. Can that help eliminate excess superoxide in the body?

When the body produces excess superoxides or sometimes, hydrogen peroxide, both of which are destructive to nervous tissue especially, any antioxidant that you take in, such as Vitamin E or red wine or pomegranate juice, to take three examples, works on a one for one basis against the excess oxygen. That is, one molecule of the antioxidant neutralizes one molecule of excess superoxide. If you are a healthy person, such antioxidants can’t hurt, and probably give the body a tiny extra antioxidant boost. But for conventional antioxidants to replace lost cellular superoxide dismutase or catalase, you would need to consume vast quantities of them – for example, one hundred gallons of pomegranate juice per day to equal the antioxidant capabilities of the cells of your own body.

How does C3 compare to an antioxidant like Pomegranate Juice?
Fullerene Therapeutics’ compound, C3, does not perform like any conventional antioxidant. It does not perform a one to one exchange. C3 is a catalyst, and if you remember your high school chemistry, a catalyst works by facilitating a chemical reaction without being part of it, and without changing its own composition. C3 acts to dismutate – which means break apart – excess superoxide by electrochemically drawing a superoxide molecule to its surface, and at the same time drawing hydrogen molecules that exist in every cell, and facilitating their combination into water and chemically stable O2. The water is flushed from the body with urine, and the O2 is either used by the cells, or recombines with excess carbon, via a different cellular process, as CO2, which you breathe out through your lungs.
How powerful is C3 as an antioxidant?
It would take 100 gallons of pomegranate juice per day to perform the work that your cells normally do to get rid of excess superoxides. A pill of C3 of 45 milligrams – about half the size of a baby aspirin – is sufficient to do the work of 100 gallons of pomegranate juice.
How long does C3 stay in the body?
C3 is a catalyst. It enters the body, facilitates the change of superoxides into stable molecular oxygen and water, and is then flushed from the body by the body’s own normal cycles, in about eight hours. A single 45 mg dose provides enough protection to the body to last all day.
Why is this important to people who suffer from central nervous system diseases, such as Parkinson’s, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s, ALS or MS?
Nervous tissue — the nerves, the myelin sheath around them and even the brain – are between 60% and 85% fatty tissue. Since superoxides attach to and destroy fatty tissue, particularly the type of fatty tissue found in nerves, keeping superoxides under control can halt the progress of central nervous system diseases. More than 15 years of experiments with C3 has found that it works on all of the central nervous system diseases in exactly the same fashion, at the same dosing level. With such success in animal models – in mice, rats, piglets and non-human primates (monkeys) – there is a substantial probability that the compound – not a drug because it is non-metabolic – will work similarly in humans.
What about toxicity? I’ve heard that fullerenes are dangerous.
Prior to FDA Phase I clinical testing, which is used to establish non-toxicity and activity, there are already strong indications of non-toxicity of the compound. In mouse studies, the fullerene compound C3 has been radio-isotope tagged prior to administration, so that when it is administered and upon autopsy, its accumulation could be measured. In those tests, there was no accumulation of the compound in the test animals. In addition, autopsy studies show no damage to organs, and no accumulation of the compound in the body.
Besides lack of toxicity, what other advantages does C3 possess over other CNS treatments?
C3 is an ongoing therapeutic treatment designed to prevent further damage or deterioration of tissue. It also seems to correct some damage insofar as memory function is concerned. Based upon what our research has so far discovered in pre-clinical treatment of several important CNS diseases, it is possible that similar results could be achieved in humans with Parkinson’s Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia, MS and ALS in the near future.


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